F. Dispute Resolution:
Like most modern countries, India has two separate avenues for the resolution of disputes. The first is the judicial system created under the Indian constitution. The second is private dispute by means of arbitration or mediation (conciliation). The hierarchy of courts has the Supreme Court of India at the top, serving as a court of final appeal from the lower courts, including the High Courts of the various states. It is also the court of first instance for certain matters specified in the constitution. Each State has its own system of courts with the High Court as the highest court. It is the court of first instance for matters in excess of Rs. 1,000,000, while the District Courts are courts of first instance in matters below the High Court's jurisdictional limit. The High Court is has appellate jurisdiction over appeals from the District Courts. Most decisions of the High Court are, in turn, appealable to the Supreme Court.
Private dispute resolution is largely governed by the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, which was legislated to conform to the UNCITRAL Model Law on international commercial arbitration. Again, arbitration and mediation had long been a part of the Indian legal tradition, with legislation going back into the 1930s.