E.  Intellectual Property:

          India is a member of the WTO and WIPO, thus laying out a framework of laws to comply with the norms of those organizations with respect to trademarks, copyrights, patents, industrial designs and geographical indications. Thus recent legislation has been the Trade Marks Act, 1999 and the Trade Marks Rules, 2002, The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 and Geographical Indications of Goods Rules, 2002 and the Designs Act, 2000, and the Indian Patent Act, 2005.

          However, prior to these international bodies coming into existence, India had legislation such as The Indian Patents Act, 1970 and the Indian Copyright Act, 1956. The latter was amended in 1999 by the Copyright (Amendment) act, 1999 to incorporate the Berne Convention on Copyrights.